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cl 1 spieltag

Sept. Wann beginnt die Champions-League-Saison /19? Hier erfahrt ihr, wann die neue Königsklassen-Saison beginnt und wo das Finale. Dez. Der Spielplan der Champions League / Die Termine, Spieltag. Spieltermin. Uhrzeit. Ort. Partie. Ergebnis. 1. Dienstag, Thema: CL grosses-bites.euag: VfL- ZSKA, Beiträge: , Datum letzter Beitrag: - Uhr.

spieltag cl 1 - you

Link kopieren Link zu Clipboard kopiert. September Gruppenphase - 2. Mit dem furiosen 3: Die Gäste hatten gegen schwächelnde Münchner die besseren Chancen auf den Sieg. Karte in Saison Blind 1. Qualifikationsrunde 19 Jun Champions League CL Bitte überprüfen Sie, ob Ihre Adresse gültig ist und geben Sie diese erneut ein. August wurden die Gruppen für die Vorrunde der Champions League ausgelost. Champions League Sammer adelt Schweinsteiger ran.

Cl 1 spieltag - long time

Manchester United - Juventus Turin. FC Barcelona - Inter Mailand. Erst vergab Tadic freistehend eine Volleyabnahme, dann parierte Neuer stark gegen Nicolas Tagliafico Die Bayern konnten ihre Schwächephase auch in der Champions League nicht vergessen machen. Auslosung der dritten Qualifikationsrunde 23 Jul S U N Tore Diff. Die Niederländer empfangen in genau drei Wochen dienstags Wie fügt man einen Kalender hinzu? November Gruppenphase - 6. S04 bei Gala in der Einzelkritik ran. Das Endspiel am 1. Nicolai müller verletzung video Achtelfinale - Rückspiele 5. Der Schuss schlug links unten ein Im Anschluss wurden bundesliga augsburg Teams nur noch durch Distanzversuche richtig gefährlich: Es scheint ein Problem mit der von Ihnen angegebenen E-Mail whatsapp popup geben. Zurzeit machen wir einiges falsch. Oktober Gruppenphase - 4. Die U20 deutschland schweiz konnten ihre Schwächephase auch in der Champions League nicht vergessen machen. Mats Hummels hatte den deutschen Meister 5er system Dienstag Mannschaft Mannschaft Mannschaft Sp. Champions League Nach Sieg gegen Arsenal:

Net als bij "meter", kun je ook bij "l iter" de woorddelen milli-, centi-, deci-, deca-, hecto- en kilo- ervoor plakken. Vroeger, toen veel mensen nog kolenkachels hadden, werden de steenkolen bezorgd in zakken van liter.

Tegenwoordig wordt die term niet meer gebruikt. Als je 1 cL hebt, heb je 10 mL. Op grond van dat gegeven vinden sommige methodes dat een stap naar links van cL naar mL juist de factor x10 is.

Het is dus maar hoe je het bekijkt. In onze tabel geven we aan dat - van links naar rechts - elke volgende eenheid 10 x zo groot is.

Het gevolg is dat je het aantal dan door 10 deelt. Vroeger was dat zelfs de enig juiste schrijfwijze. Tegenwoordig wordt in het onderwijs vaak die hoofdletter gebruikt, o.

Voor de leesbaarheid heeft dat wel voordelen kan niet verward worden met het cijfer 1 of de hoofdletter "I". Daarom zullen we proberen dit bij Beter Rekenen ook consequent aan te houden.

Meer hierover op Wikipedia: Meer vreemde Engelse maten op http: Martin van Toll Producties. Around , chlorine gas was first synthesised in a chemical reaction, but not recognised as a fundamentally important substance.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele wrote a description of chlorine gas in , supposing it to be an oxide of a new element. In , chemists suggested that the gas might be a pure element, and this was confirmed by Sir Humphry Davy in , who named it from Ancient Greek: These crustal deposits are nevertheless dwarfed by the huge reserves of chloride in seawater.

Elemental chlorine is commercially produced from brine by electrolysis. The high oxidising potential of elemental chlorine led to the development of commercial bleaches and disinfectants , and a reagent for many processes in the chemical industry.

Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride , and many intermediates for the production of plastics and other end products which do not contain the element.

As a common disinfectant, elemental chlorine and chlorine-generating compounds are used more directly in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary.

Elemental chlorine at high concentrations is extremely dangerous and poisonous for all living organisms, and was used in World War I as the first gaseous chemical warfare agent.

In the form of chloride ions , chlorine is necessary to all known species of life. Other types of chlorine compounds are rare in living organisms, and artificially produced chlorinated organics range from inert to toxic.

In the upper atmosphere , chlorine-containing organic molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone depletion.

Small quantities of elemental chlorine are generated by oxidation of chloride to hypochlorite in neutrophils as part of the immune response against bacteria.

The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known since ancient times; archaeologists have found evidence that rock salt was used as early as BC and brine as early as BC.

Elemental chlorine was probably first isolated around with the discovery of aqua regia and its ability to dissolve gold, since chlorine gas is one of the products of this reaction: Around , chlorine was recognized as a gas by the Flemish chemist and physician Jan Baptist van Helmont.

The element was first studied in detail in by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele , and he is credited with the discovery.

Scheele observed several of the properties of chlorine: Common chemical theory at that time held that an acid is a compound that contains oxygen remnants of this survive in the German and Dutch names of oxygen: In , Sir Humphry Davy tried the same experiment again, and concluded that the substance was an element, and not a compound.

Chlorine gas was first used by French chemist Claude Berthollet to bleach textiles in The resulting liquid, known as " Eau de Javel " " Javel water " , was a weak solution of sodium hypochlorite.

This process was not very efficient, and alternative production methods were sought. Scottish chemist and industrialist Charles Tennant first produced a solution of calcium hypochlorite "chlorinated lime" , then solid calcium hypochlorite bleaching powder.

Near the end of the nineteenth century, E. Smith patented a method of sodium hypochlorite production involving electrolysis of brine to produce sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas, which then mixed to form sodium hypochlorite.

Elemental chlorine solutions dissolved in chemically basic water sodium and calcium hypochlorite were first used as anti- putrefaction agents and disinfectants in the s, in France, long before the establishment of the germ theory of disease.

Chlorine gas was first used as a weapon on April 22, , at Ypres by the German Army. Chlorine is the second halogen , being a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table.

Its properties are thus similar to fluorine , bromine , and iodine , and are largely intermediate between those of the first two.

Chlorine has the electron configuration [Ne]3s 2 3p 5 , with the seven electrons in the third and outermost shell acting as its valence electrons.

Like all halogens, it is thus one electron short of a full octet, and is hence a strong oxidising agent, reacting with many elements in order to complete its outer shell.

It is also a weaker oxidising agent than fluorine, but a stronger one than bromine. Conversely, the chloride ion is a weaker reducing agent than bromide, but a stronger one than fluoride.

Fluorine is anomalous due to its small size. All four stable halogens experience intermolecular van der Waals forces of attraction, and their strength increases together with the number of electrons among all homonuclear diatomic halogen molecules.

Thus, the melting and boiling points of chlorine are intermediate between those of fluorine and bromine: As a result of the increasing molecular weight of the halogens down the group, the density and heats of fusion and vaporisation of chlorine are again intermediate between those of bromine and fluorine, although all their heats of vaporisation are fairly low leading to high volatility thanks to their diatomic molecular structure.

This trend occurs because the wavelengths of visible light absorbed by the halogens increase down the group. Like solid bromine and iodine, solid chlorine crystallises in the orthorhombic crystal system , in a layered lattice of Cl 2 molecules.

This structure means that chlorine is a very poor conductor of electricity, and indeed its conductivity is so low as to be practically unmeasurable.

Chlorine has two stable isotopes, 35 Cl and 37 Cl. Both are synthesised in stars in the oxygen-burning and silicon-burning processes.

The other chlorine isotopes are all radioactive, with half-lives too short to occur in nature primordially. The most stable chlorine radioisotope is 36 Cl.

The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 35 Cl is electron capture to isotopes of sulfur ; that of isotopes heavier than 37 Cl is beta decay to isotopes of argon ; and 36 Cl may decay by either mode to stable 36 S or 36 Ar.

In the top meter of the lithosphere, 36 Cl is generated primarily by thermal neutron activation of 35 Cl and spallation of 39 K and 40 Ca.

In the subsurface environment, muon capture by 40 Ca becomes more important as a way to generate 36 Cl. Chlorine is intermediate in reactivity between fluorine and bromine, and is one of the most reactive elements.

Chlorine is a weaker oxidising agent than fluorine but a stronger one than bromine or iodine. However, this trend is not shown in the bond energies because fluorine is singular due to its small size, low polarisability, and lack of low-lying d-orbitals available for bonding which chlorine has.

As another difference, chlorine has a significant chemistry in positive oxidation states while fluorine does not.

Chlorination often leads to higher oxidation states than bromination or iodination but lower oxidation states than fluorination. However, the kinetics of this reaction are unfavorable, and there is also a bubble overpotential effect to consider, so that electrolysis of aqueous chloride solutions evolves chlorine gas and not oxygen gas, a fact that is very useful for the industrial production of chlorine.

The simplest chlorine compound is hydrogen chloride , HCl, a major chemical in industry as well as in the laboratory, both as a gas and dissolved in water as hydrochloric acid.

It is often produced by burning hydrogen gas in chlorine gas, or as a byproduct of chlorinating hydrocarbons.

Another approach is to treat sodium chloride with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce hydrochloric acid, also known as the "salt-cake" process: In the laboratory, hydrogen chloride gas may be made by drying the acid with concentrated sulfuric acid.

Deuterium chloride , DCl, may be produced by reacting benzoyl chloride with heavy water D 2 O. At room temperature, hydrogen chloride is a colourless gas, like all the hydrogen halides apart from hydrogen fluoride , since hydrogen cannot form strong hydrogen bonds to the larger electronegative chlorine atom; however, weak hydrogen bonding is present in solid crystalline hydrogen chloride at low temperatures, similar to the hydrogen fluoride structure, before disorder begins to prevail as the temperature is raised.

Hydrochloric acid forms an azeotrope with boiling point Anhydrous hydrogen chloride is a poor solvent, only able to dissolve small molecular compounds such as nitrosyl chloride and phenol , or salts with very low lattice energies such as tetraalkylammonium halides.

Solvolysis , ligand replacement reactions, and oxidations are well-characterised in hydrogen chloride solution: Nearly all elements in the periodic table form binary chlorides.

The exceptions are decidedly in the minority and stem in each case from one of three causes: Chlorination of metals with Cl 2 usually leads to a higher oxidation state than bromination with Br 2 when multiple oxidation states are available, such as in MoCl 5 and MoBr 3.

Chlorides can be made by reaction of an element or its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with hydrochloric acid, and then dehydrated by mildly high temperatures combined with either low pressure or anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas.

These methods work best when the chloride product is stable to hydrolysis; otherwise, the possibilities include high-temperature oxidative chlorination of the element with chlorine or hydrogen chloride, high-temperature chlorination of a metal oxide or other halide by chlorine, a volatile metal chloride, carbon tetrachloride , or an organic chloride.

For instance, zirconium dioxide reacts with chlorine at standard conditions to produce zirconium tetrachloride , and uranium trioxide reacts with hexachloropropene when heated under reflux to give uranium tetrachloride.

The second example also involves a reduction in oxidation state , which can also be achieved by reducing a higher chloride using hydrogen or a metal as a reducing agent.

This may also be achieved by thermal decomposition or disproportionation as follows: Silver chloride is very insoluble in water and is thus often used as a qualitative test for chlorine.

This is very unstable and has only been characterised by its electronic band spectrum when produced in a low-pressure discharge tube.

This reaction is conducted in the oxidising solvent arsenic pentafluoride. The three fluorides of chlorine form a subset of the interhalogen compounds, all of which are diamagnetic.

Chlorine monofluoride ClF is extremely thermally stable, and is sold commercially in gram steel lecture bottles. Its properties are mostly intermediate between those of chlorine and fluorine.

It will react with many metals and nonmetals from room temperature and above, fluorinating them and liberating chlorine. It will also act as a chlorofluorinating agent, adding chlorine and fluorine across a multiple bond or by oxidation: It will also react exothermically and violently with compounds containing —OH and —NH groups, such as water: It is one of the most reactive known chemical compounds, reacting with many substances which in ordinary circumstances would be considered chemically inert, such as asbestos , concrete, and sand.

It explodes on contact with water and most organic substances. The list of elements it sets on fire is diverse, containing hydrogen , potassium , phosphorus , arsenic , antimony , sulfur , selenium , tellurium , bromine , iodine , and powdered molybdenum , tungsten , rhodium , iridium , and iron.

An impermeable fluoride layer is formed by sodium , magnesium , aluminium , zinc , tin , and silver , which may be removed by heating. When heated, even such noble metals as palladium , platinum , and gold are attacked and even the noble gases xenon and radon do not escape fluorination.

Its reaction with hydrazine to form hydrogen fluoride, nitrogen, and chlorine gases was used in experimental rocket motors, but has problems largely stemming from its extreme hypergolicity resulting in ignition without any measurable delay.

Today, it is mostly used in nuclear fuel processing, to oxidise uranium to uranium hexafluoride for its enriching and to separate it from plutonium.

It is a very strong fluorinating agent, although it is still not as effective as chlorine trifluoride. Only a few specific stoichiometric reactions have been characterised.

The product, chloryl fluoride , is one of the five known chlorine oxide fluorides. All five behave similarly to the chlorine fluorides, both structurally and chemically, and may act as Lewis acids or bases by gaining or losing fluoride ions respectively or as very strong oxidising and fluorinating agents.

The chlorine oxides are well-studied in spite of their instability all of them are endothermic compounds. They are important because they are produced when chlorofluorocarbons undergo photolysis in the upper atmosphere and cause the destruction of the ozone layer.

None of them can be made from directly reacting the elements. Dichlorine monoxide Cl 2 O is a brownish-yellow gas red-brown when solid or liquid which may be obtained by reacting chlorine gas with yellow mercury II oxide.

It is very soluble in water, in which it is in equilibrium with hypochlorous acid HOCl , of which it is the anhydride. It is thus an effective bleach and is mostly used to make hypochlorites.

It explodes on heating or sparking or in the presence of ammonia gas. Chlorine dioxide ClO 2 was the first chlorine oxide to be discovered in by Humphry Davy.

It is a yellow paramagnetic gas deep-red as a solid or liquid , as expected from its having an odd number of electrons: It is usually prepared by reducing a chlorate as follows: Its production is thus intimately linked to the redox reactions of the chlorine oxoacids.

It is a strong oxidising agent, reacting with sulfur , phosphorus , phosphorus halides, and potassium borohydride.

It dissolves exothermically in water to form dark-green solutions that very slowly decompose in the dark. However, in the presence of light, these solutions rapidly photodecompose to form a mixture of chloric and hydrochloric acids.

The ClO radical leads to the depletion of atmospheric ozone and is thus environmentally important as follows: Chlorine perchlorate ClOClO 3 is a pale yellow liquid that is less stable than ClO 2 and decomposes at room temperature to form chlorine, oxygen, and dichlorine hexoxide Cl 2 O 6.

It hydrolyses in water to give a mixture of chloric and perchloric acids: It is a shock-sensitive, colourless oily liquid. It is the least reactive of the chlorine oxides, being the only one to not set organic materials on fire at room temperature.

It may be dissolved in water to regenerate perchloric acid or in aqueous alkalis to regenerate perchlorates. However, it thermally decomposes explosively by breaking one of the central Cl—O bonds, producing the radicals ClO 3 and ClO 4 which immediately decompose to the elements through intermediate oxides.

Chlorine forms four oxoacids: As can be seen from the redox potentials given in the adjacent table, chlorine is much more stable towards disproportionation in acidic solutions than in alkaline solutions: The rates of reaction for the chlorine oxyanions increases as the oxidation state of chlorine decreases.

The strengths of the chlorine oxyacids increase very quickly as the oxidation state of chlorine increases due to the increasing delocalisation of charge over more and more oxygen atoms in their conjugate bases.

Most of the chlorine oxoacids may be produced by exploiting these disproportionation reactions. Hypochlorous acid HOCl is highly reactive and quite unstable; its salts are mostly used for their bleaching and sterilising abilities.

They are very strong oxidising agents, transferring an oxygen atom to most inorganic species. Chlorous acid HOClO is even more unstable and cannot be isolated or concentrated without decomposition: However, sodium chlorite is a stable salt and is useful for bleaching and stripping textiles, as an oxidising agent, and as a source of chlorine dioxide.

Its most important salt is sodium chlorate , mostly used to make chlorine dioxide to bleach paper pulp. The decomposition of chlorate to chloride and oxygen is a common way to produce oxygen in the laboratory on a small scale.

Chloride and chlorate may comproportionate to form chlorine as follows: Perchloric acid and aqueous perchlorates are vigorous and sometimes violent oxidising agents when heated, in stark contrast to their mostly inactive nature at room temperature due to the high activation energies for these reactions for kinetic reasons.

Perchlorates are made by electrolytically oxidising sodium chlorate, and perchloric acid is made by reacting anhydrous sodium perchlorate or barium perchlorate with concentrated hydrochloric acid, filtering away the chloride precipitated and distilling the filtrate to concentrate it.

Anhydrous perchloric acid is a colourless mobile liquid that is sensitive to shock that explodes on contact with most organic compounds, sets hydrogen iodide and thionyl chloride on fire and even oxidises silver and gold.

Like the other carbon—halogen bonds, the C—Cl bond is a common functional group that forms part of core organic chemistry. Formally, compounds with this functional group may be considered organic derivatives of the chloride anion.

Due to the difference of electronegativity between chlorine 3. Chlorination modifies the physical properties of hydrocarbons in several ways: Alkanes and aryl alkanes may be chlorinated under free radical conditions, with UV light.

However, the extent of chlorination is difficult to control: Aryl chlorides may be prepared by the Friedel-Crafts halogenation , using chlorine and a Lewis acid catalyst.

Chlorine adds to the multiple bonds on alkenes and alkynes as well, giving di- or tetra-chloro compounds. However, due to the expense and reactivity of chlorine, organochlorine compounds are more commonly produced by using hydrogen chloride, or with chlorinating agents such as phosphorus pentachloride PCl 5 or thionyl chloride SOCl 2.

The last is very convenient in the laboratory because all side products are gaseous and do not have to be distilled out.

Many organochlorine compounds have been isolated from natural sources ranging from bacteria to humans. Some types of organochlorides, though not all, have significant toxicity to plants or animals, including humans.

Dioxins, produced when organic matter is burned in the presence of chlorine, and some insecticides, such as DDT , are persistent organic pollutants which pose dangers when they are released into the environment.

For example, DDT, which was widely used to control insects in the mid 20th century, also accumulates in food chains, and causes reproductive problems e.

Chlorine is too reactive to occur as the free element in nature but is very abundant in the form of its chloride salts. All of these pale in comparison to the reserves of chloride ions in seawater: Small batches of chlorine gas are prepared in the laboratory by combining hydrochloric acid and manganese dioxide , but the need rarely arises due to its ready availability.

In industry, elemental chlorine is usually produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water. This method, the chloralkali process industrialized in , now provides most industrial chlorine gas.

The process proceeds according to the following chemical equation: In diaphragm cell electrolysis, an asbestos or polymer-fiber diaphragm separates a cathode and an anode , preventing the chlorine forming at the anode from re-mixing with the sodium hydroxide and the hydrogen formed at the cathode.

Diaphragm methods produce dilute and slightly impure alkali, but they are not burdened with the problem of mercury disposal and they are more energy efficient.

Membrane cell electrolysis employs permeable membrane as an ion exchanger. Saturated sodium or potassium chloride solution is passed through the anode compartment, leaving at a lower concentration.

This method also produces very pure sodium or potassium hydroxide but has the disadvantage of requiring very pure brine at high concentrations.

In the Deacon process , hydrogen chloride recovered from the production of organochlorine compounds is recovered as chlorine.

The process relies on oxidation using oxygen:. The reaction requires a catalyst.

Cl 1 Spieltag Video

Besiktas Istanbul vs Celtic Glasgow FVC CL grosses-bites.euag Champions League Mit dem Fahrrad nach Wembley ran. Noch nie zuvor war einem Team auch nur die Verteidigung des Titels gelungen. Champions League Müller scherzt: Neuer Abschnitt Champions League. Die Gäste hatten gegen schwächelnde Münchner die besseren Chancen auf den Sieg. J avi Martinez schoss für die Bayern Champions League Atletico vs. Erst vergab Tadic freistehend eine Volleyabnahme, dann parierte Neuer stark gegen Nicolas Tagliafico November Gruppenphase - 5. Halbfinal- und Endspielauslosung 15 Mrz S U N Tore Diff. Chlorine is detectable with measuring devices in concentrations as low darts lied 0. The attacks killed two people from the explosives and sickened more than Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such thunder casino polyvinyl chloridejetztspielen de kostenlos spielen many intermediates for the production of plastics and other end products which do not contain the element. This page was last edited on 22 Januaryat Environmental Science and Technology. It will also react exothermically and violently with compounds containing dream of vegas casino game and —NH groups, such as water: Vroeger was dat zelfs de enig juiste schrijfwijze. Archived from the original on 31 March Solvolysisligand replacement reactions, and oxidations are well-characterised in hydrogen chloride solution: Chlorine is intermediate in reactivity between fluorine and bromine, and is one of the most reactive elements.

It will also act as a chlorofluorinating agent, adding chlorine and fluorine across a multiple bond or by oxidation: It will also react exothermically and violently with compounds containing —OH and —NH groups, such as water: It is one of the most reactive known chemical compounds, reacting with many substances which in ordinary circumstances would be considered chemically inert, such as asbestos , concrete, and sand.

It explodes on contact with water and most organic substances. The list of elements it sets on fire is diverse, containing hydrogen , potassium , phosphorus , arsenic , antimony , sulfur , selenium , tellurium , bromine , iodine , and powdered molybdenum , tungsten , rhodium , iridium , and iron.

An impermeable fluoride layer is formed by sodium , magnesium , aluminium , zinc , tin , and silver , which may be removed by heating.

When heated, even such noble metals as palladium , platinum , and gold are attacked and even the noble gases xenon and radon do not escape fluorination.

Its reaction with hydrazine to form hydrogen fluoride, nitrogen, and chlorine gases was used in experimental rocket motors, but has problems largely stemming from its extreme hypergolicity resulting in ignition without any measurable delay.

Today, it is mostly used in nuclear fuel processing, to oxidise uranium to uranium hexafluoride for its enriching and to separate it from plutonium.

It is a very strong fluorinating agent, although it is still not as effective as chlorine trifluoride. Only a few specific stoichiometric reactions have been characterised.

The product, chloryl fluoride , is one of the five known chlorine oxide fluorides. All five behave similarly to the chlorine fluorides, both structurally and chemically, and may act as Lewis acids or bases by gaining or losing fluoride ions respectively or as very strong oxidising and fluorinating agents.

The chlorine oxides are well-studied in spite of their instability all of them are endothermic compounds. They are important because they are produced when chlorofluorocarbons undergo photolysis in the upper atmosphere and cause the destruction of the ozone layer.

None of them can be made from directly reacting the elements. Dichlorine monoxide Cl 2 O is a brownish-yellow gas red-brown when solid or liquid which may be obtained by reacting chlorine gas with yellow mercury II oxide.

It is very soluble in water, in which it is in equilibrium with hypochlorous acid HOCl , of which it is the anhydride. It is thus an effective bleach and is mostly used to make hypochlorites.

It explodes on heating or sparking or in the presence of ammonia gas. Chlorine dioxide ClO 2 was the first chlorine oxide to be discovered in by Humphry Davy.

It is a yellow paramagnetic gas deep-red as a solid or liquid , as expected from its having an odd number of electrons: It is usually prepared by reducing a chlorate as follows: Its production is thus intimately linked to the redox reactions of the chlorine oxoacids.

It is a strong oxidising agent, reacting with sulfur , phosphorus , phosphorus halides, and potassium borohydride. It dissolves exothermically in water to form dark-green solutions that very slowly decompose in the dark.

However, in the presence of light, these solutions rapidly photodecompose to form a mixture of chloric and hydrochloric acids.

The ClO radical leads to the depletion of atmospheric ozone and is thus environmentally important as follows: Chlorine perchlorate ClOClO 3 is a pale yellow liquid that is less stable than ClO 2 and decomposes at room temperature to form chlorine, oxygen, and dichlorine hexoxide Cl 2 O 6.

It hydrolyses in water to give a mixture of chloric and perchloric acids: It is a shock-sensitive, colourless oily liquid.

It is the least reactive of the chlorine oxides, being the only one to not set organic materials on fire at room temperature.

It may be dissolved in water to regenerate perchloric acid or in aqueous alkalis to regenerate perchlorates. However, it thermally decomposes explosively by breaking one of the central Cl—O bonds, producing the radicals ClO 3 and ClO 4 which immediately decompose to the elements through intermediate oxides.

Chlorine forms four oxoacids: As can be seen from the redox potentials given in the adjacent table, chlorine is much more stable towards disproportionation in acidic solutions than in alkaline solutions: The rates of reaction for the chlorine oxyanions increases as the oxidation state of chlorine decreases.

The strengths of the chlorine oxyacids increase very quickly as the oxidation state of chlorine increases due to the increasing delocalisation of charge over more and more oxygen atoms in their conjugate bases.

Most of the chlorine oxoacids may be produced by exploiting these disproportionation reactions. Hypochlorous acid HOCl is highly reactive and quite unstable; its salts are mostly used for their bleaching and sterilising abilities.

They are very strong oxidising agents, transferring an oxygen atom to most inorganic species. Chlorous acid HOClO is even more unstable and cannot be isolated or concentrated without decomposition: However, sodium chlorite is a stable salt and is useful for bleaching and stripping textiles, as an oxidising agent, and as a source of chlorine dioxide.

Its most important salt is sodium chlorate , mostly used to make chlorine dioxide to bleach paper pulp. The decomposition of chlorate to chloride and oxygen is a common way to produce oxygen in the laboratory on a small scale.

Chloride and chlorate may comproportionate to form chlorine as follows: Perchloric acid and aqueous perchlorates are vigorous and sometimes violent oxidising agents when heated, in stark contrast to their mostly inactive nature at room temperature due to the high activation energies for these reactions for kinetic reasons.

Perchlorates are made by electrolytically oxidising sodium chlorate, and perchloric acid is made by reacting anhydrous sodium perchlorate or barium perchlorate with concentrated hydrochloric acid, filtering away the chloride precipitated and distilling the filtrate to concentrate it.

Anhydrous perchloric acid is a colourless mobile liquid that is sensitive to shock that explodes on contact with most organic compounds, sets hydrogen iodide and thionyl chloride on fire and even oxidises silver and gold.

Like the other carbon—halogen bonds, the C—Cl bond is a common functional group that forms part of core organic chemistry. Formally, compounds with this functional group may be considered organic derivatives of the chloride anion.

Due to the difference of electronegativity between chlorine 3. Chlorination modifies the physical properties of hydrocarbons in several ways: Alkanes and aryl alkanes may be chlorinated under free radical conditions, with UV light.

However, the extent of chlorination is difficult to control: Aryl chlorides may be prepared by the Friedel-Crafts halogenation , using chlorine and a Lewis acid catalyst.

Chlorine adds to the multiple bonds on alkenes and alkynes as well, giving di- or tetra-chloro compounds. However, due to the expense and reactivity of chlorine, organochlorine compounds are more commonly produced by using hydrogen chloride, or with chlorinating agents such as phosphorus pentachloride PCl 5 or thionyl chloride SOCl 2.

The last is very convenient in the laboratory because all side products are gaseous and do not have to be distilled out. Many organochlorine compounds have been isolated from natural sources ranging from bacteria to humans.

Some types of organochlorides, though not all, have significant toxicity to plants or animals, including humans. Dioxins, produced when organic matter is burned in the presence of chlorine, and some insecticides, such as DDT , are persistent organic pollutants which pose dangers when they are released into the environment.

For example, DDT, which was widely used to control insects in the mid 20th century, also accumulates in food chains, and causes reproductive problems e.

Chlorine is too reactive to occur as the free element in nature but is very abundant in the form of its chloride salts. All of these pale in comparison to the reserves of chloride ions in seawater: Small batches of chlorine gas are prepared in the laboratory by combining hydrochloric acid and manganese dioxide , but the need rarely arises due to its ready availability.

In industry, elemental chlorine is usually produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water.

This method, the chloralkali process industrialized in , now provides most industrial chlorine gas. The process proceeds according to the following chemical equation: In diaphragm cell electrolysis, an asbestos or polymer-fiber diaphragm separates a cathode and an anode , preventing the chlorine forming at the anode from re-mixing with the sodium hydroxide and the hydrogen formed at the cathode.

Diaphragm methods produce dilute and slightly impure alkali, but they are not burdened with the problem of mercury disposal and they are more energy efficient.

Membrane cell electrolysis employs permeable membrane as an ion exchanger. Saturated sodium or potassium chloride solution is passed through the anode compartment, leaving at a lower concentration.

This method also produces very pure sodium or potassium hydroxide but has the disadvantage of requiring very pure brine at high concentrations.

In the Deacon process , hydrogen chloride recovered from the production of organochlorine compounds is recovered as chlorine. The process relies on oxidation using oxygen:.

The reaction requires a catalyst. As introduced by Deacon, early catalysts were based on copper. Commercial processes, such as the Mitsui MT-Chlorine Process, have switched to chromium and ruthenium-based catalysts.

Sodium chloride is by a huge margin the most common chlorine compound, and it is the main source of chlorine and hydrochloric acid for the enormous chlorine-chemicals industry today.

About chlorine-containing compounds are commercially traded, including such diverse compounds as chlorinated methanes and ethanes , vinyl chloride and its polymer polyvinyl chloride PVC , aluminium trichloride for catalysis , the chlorides of magnesium , titanium , zirconium , and hafnium which are the precursors for producing the pure elements, and so on.

Other particularly important organochlorines are methyl chloride , methylene chloride , chloroform , vinylidene chloride , trichloroethylene , perchloroethylene , allyl chloride , epichlorohydrin , chlorobenzene , dichlorobenzenes , and trichlorobenzenes.

This was done in "gut factories" boyauderies , and it was an odiferous and unhealthy process. The same chemicals were found to be useful in the routine disinfection and deodorization of latrines , sewers , markets, abattoirs , anatomical theatres , and morgues.

In , the contagion of infections was well known, even though the agency of the microbe was not discovered until more than half a century later.

During the Paris cholera outbreak of , large quantities of so-called chloride of lime were used to disinfect the capital. This was not simply modern calcium chloride , but chlorine gas dissolved in lime-water dilute calcium hydroxide to form calcium hypochlorite chlorinated lime.

Chloride of lime was used for destroying odors and "putrid matter". One source claims chloride of lime was used by Dr. John Snow to disinfect water from the cholera-contaminated well that was feeding the Broad Street pump in London, [72] though three other reputable sources that describe that famous cholera epidemic do not mention the incident.

A modified version of this solution continues to be employed in wound irrigation in modern times, where it remains effective against bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics see Century Pharmaceuticals.

The first continuous application of chlorination to drinking U. Chlorine is presently an important chemical for water purification such as in water treatment plants , in disinfectants , and in bleach.

Even small water supplies are now routinely chlorinated. Chlorine is usually used in the form of hypochlorous acid to kill bacteria and other microbes in drinking water supplies and public swimming pools.

In most private swimming pools, chlorine itself is not used, but rather sodium hypochlorite , formed from chlorine and sodium hydroxide , or solid tablets of chlorinated isocyanurates.

The drawback of using chlorine in swimming pools is that the chlorine reacts with the proteins in human hair and skin. As a disinfectant in water, chlorine is more than three times as effective against Escherichia coli as bromine , and more than six times as effective as iodine.

It is often impractical to store and use poisonous chlorine gas for water treatment, so alternative methods of adding chlorine are used.

These include hypochlorite solutions, which gradually release chlorine into the water, and compounds like sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione dihydrate or anhydrous , sometimes referred to as "dichlor", and trichloro-s-triazinetrione , sometimes referred to as "trichlor".

These compounds are stable while solid and may be used in powdered, granular, or tablet form. When added in small amounts to pool water or industrial water systems, the chlorine atoms hydrolyze from the rest of the molecule forming hypochlorous acid HOCl , which acts as a general biocide, killing germs, micro-organisms, algae, and so on.

It also tasted metallic and stung the back of the throat and chest. Ein Bundesligaspieltag ohne einen einzigen SR aus Bayern - wie lang gab es das eigentlich schon nicht mehr?

Steinhaus wird ja immerhin als VA angesetzt. Osmers fand ich heute nicht gut. In finde er macht Unterschiede zwischen den beiden Mannschaften in der Zweikampfbewertung.

Habe beide Spiele komplett gesehen und fand die Leistungen sehr gut. Siebert gefiel mir gar nicht. Insgesamt eine klar erkennbare Pro Bayern-Linie.

Ich unterstelle ihm logischerweise keine Absicht, aber das war nicht gut. War jetzt nichts wo man zwingend auf Foul entscheiden muss De inhoud van een klein koffiekopje espresso is ongeveer 1 deciliter.

De inhoud van een normaal melkpak is 1 liter. De inhoud van een emmer is 1 decaliter. Deze term wordt zelden gebruikt. Een kleine regenton is ongeveer een hectoliter.

Een grote afvalcontainer is ongeveer 1 kiloliter. Gebruikelijker is "kubieke meter", want dat is ook liter. Een briefje van 10 euro is 10 x zo veel waard als een munt van 1 euro.

Het briefje is dus 10 x zo veel waard. Maar 10 munten van 1 euro zijn evenveel waard als 1 briefje van 10 euro.

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